Yield mapping refers to the process of collecting georeferenced data on crop yield and characteristics, such as moisture content, while the crop is being harvested. Various methods, using a range of sensors, have been developed for mapping crop yields.

Yield maps are one of the most valuable sources of spatial data for precision agriculture. In developing these maps, it is essential to remove the data points that do not accurately represent the yield at a corresponding location. Map averaging or smoothing is usually done to aid data interpretation. A long yield history is essential to avoid drawing conclusions that are affected by the weather or other unpredictable factors during a particular year. Typically, at least five years of yield maps are desired. Processed yield maps can be used to investigate factors affecting the yield or to prescribe variable rate applications of agricultural inputs according to spatially variable yield goals (yield potential). Producers interested in precision farming should, however, always evaluate different management approaches to identify those that provide the greatest benefit at a particular site.